The historical range of the Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout was upstream of Shoshone Falls on the Snake River and tributaries. It also existed across the Continental Divide in Yellowstone Lake and in the Yellowstone River, and its tributaries downstream to the Tongue. Yellowstone Cutthroat can be distinguished from other cutthroat trout by their larger black spots, clustered toward the tail, and by their gray, gold, and copper hues. The Yellowstone Cutthroat measures from 6 to 20 inches long when it reaches maturity.
Since 2007, the Western Native Trout Initiative has provided $322,251 in funding to 15 projects to benefit Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout. Projects have included barrier construction and restoration, habitat restoration, fish passage, telemetry studies, and public outreach and education.